Agreement Antara Pronoun dan Antecedent

Agreement Antara Pronoun dan Antecedent

Antecedent adalah kata yang diacu (tempat kembali) atau ditunjuk oleh pronoun (kata ganti).

a. Agreement in Number

Jika antecedent-nya singular, maka pronoun-nya harus juga singular, dan sebaliknya, jika antecedent plural maka pronounnya harus plural.

1. The men bred their white cat.
2. Each roan gets to heaven in his way.
3. The jury were divided. They were unable to bring a verdict.

b. Agreement in Gender

Pronoun – personal pronoun harus sesuai dalam gender (masculine, feminine, neuter, common) dengan antecedent-nya.

1. The man has done his duty.
2. The woman has finished her homework.
3. The child has finished its duty.
4. The cat ate its meal.

c. Agreement in Person

Pronoun harus sesuai dalam person -(orang pertama, orang kedua, atau orang ketiga) dengan antecedent-nya.

1. We are not teachers, but we must teach our children discipline.
2. Some students study hard because they want to pass the final exam.
3. When one pays attention, he (or one) learns better.
4. The leader expects every man to do his duty.

Catatan:

* Apabila dua antecedent atau lebih, dihubungkan dengan and, maka harus ditunjukkan dengan plural noun.

1. John and Mary did their work.
2. The beautiful and the damned have their place in fiction.
3. Udin and Amir have just mowed their lawn.
4. The boys and girls asked us to repeat what we’d said to them.

* Apabila indefinite pronoun digunakan sebagai antecedent, maka pronoun-nya harus sesuai dalam number.

Indefinite pronoun berikut ini adalah singular, maka jika digunakan sebagai antecedent, mereka memerlukan singular pronoun.

another – either – much – one – anybody – everybody – neither – somebody – anyone – everyone – nobody – someone – anything – everything – no one – something – each – it – nothing.

1. Each of the boys did his home work.
2. The school will accept anyone if he/she seems worthy
3. Neither of our products is selling at its best.
4. Each of us knows his/her social security number.
5. Someone left his coat in his locker.
6. One likes to do what he or she can do well

Indefinite pronoun berikut ini adalah plural, maka jika digunakan sebagai antecedent, mereka memerlukan plural pronoun.

both – few – many – others – several

1. Many people enjoy their vacation in Bali.
2. Both of the applicants are worthy, at least on their resumes.
3. Few can remember when they were two years old.
4. Several found their cars unlocked.
5. Others found their friend in the Balcon

Indefinite pronoun berikut ini bila digunakan sebagai antecedent, mungkin dapat berarti singular atau plural tergantung pads arti yang dimaksudkan, maka pronoun-nya hares sesuai dengan arti yang dimaksudkan.

all – any – more – most – none – some

1. Are any of them here today? (plural)
2. All in the crowd cheered their approval. (plural)
3. All the money is in its proper place. (singular)
4. Some of the candy has lost its flavor. (singular)

Apabila collective noun menjadi antecedent, maka ditunjukkan dengan singular pronoun, jika yang dimaksudkan singular, dan ditunjukkan dengan plural noun, jika yang dimaksudkan plural.

audience – couple – family – public – class – crowd – government – jury – committee – group – team – army – dll.

1. The Jury gave its verdict. (singular)
2. The Jury gave their verdict. (plural, berarti masing-masing anggota dari tim jury tersebut).
3. An army marches against its enemy. (singular)
4. The committee meets for its final session next week. (singular)
5. The committee are arguing among themselves. (plural)

Catatan:

Dalam American English lebih Bering menggunakan singular verb untuk collective noun tersebut di atas, sedangkan dalam British English sebaliknya.

(AE) The government is planning many changes. (BE) The government are planning many changes.

* Apabila salah satu antecedent dihubungkan dengan:

either … or – neither … nor – or – nor maka:

* Bila antecedent yang terdekat dengan verb adalah singular, maka pronoun-nya juga singular.

1. Neither Ali nor Fatimah has just mowed her lawn.
2. Either my brother or John has taken his exam.

* Bila antecedent yang terdekat dengan verb adalah plural, maka pronoun-nya juga plural.

1. Neither Ali nor Fatimah’s children have just mowed their lawn.
2. Either Udin or his sisters will get their wish.
3. Neither John nor my brothers have taken their exam.

* Apabila kita ingin menentukan antecedent yang sesungguhnya dalam sebuah kalimat yang ada kata-kata (phrase, appositive atau clause), maka kita tidak usah memperhatikan kata-kata tersebut. Anggaplah phrase atau appositive tersebut tidak ada.

1. Mary, along with the two others, studied her piano lesson.
2. Amir, and not his nephews, is on his way here now.
3. Each of our nearest neighbors has a van in his driveway.
4. Jalal, our regional director of Wijaya kontraktor, has his office in Yogyakarta.

* subjek dari relative clause: who, which atau that, dapat berbentuk plural atau singular tergantung pads antecedent-nya.

1. The people elect their representatives who speak for them in Congress.
2. Umar is one of my friends who are helping me paint my house.
3. Umar is the only one of my friends who is helping me paint my house.
4. Siti Nurbaya is one of the most interesting books that have ever been written.

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