Verb Patterns & Structures

Subject + intransitive verb

Beberapa kalimat hanya memiliki 2 kata, yaitu Kata Benda (Noun) dan Kata Kerja Intransitif, contoh:

* Birds fly.
* Dogs bark.
* Fire burns.
* Time flies.

Subject + transitive verb + direct object

Kata Kerja Transitif harus memiliki minimal 1 buah Objek. Susunan Normal dari sebuah kalimat adalah Subject + Verb + Object.

* John likes milk.
* The principal punished the boy.
* The unruly demonstrators invaded the platform.
* The scoundrels should be given a good thrashing.
* The government should ban all military organizations.

Subject + verb + object + adverb particle

Ada beberapa Kata kerja yang diikuti oleh Particles (Misalnya: put on, take off, give away, bring up, call in). Kadang-kadang Particle tersebut dipisahkan dengan kata kerjanya dan diletakkan setelah Objek Langsung (Direct Object). Contoh:

* John put his hat on.
* They called the doctor in.
* He threw it away.
* You must send them back.

Particle diletakkan setelah Objek apabila Object-nya adalah Personal Pronoun (e.g. him, them, me, us, it) atau Objeknya sangat singkat.

Namun apabila Objeknya panjang maka letakkan Particle tersebut sebelum Objeknya. Contoh:

* The principal gave away the prices.
* He put on an air of innocence.
* We will not throw away anything useful.
* The poor widow had to bring up all three children.
* The sailors put out the fire in the hold of the ship.
* They called in Dr Smith, a famous specialist.

Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object

Pola di atas digunakan apabila Objek Tak Langsung (Indirect Object) lebih pendek dari Objek Langsungnya (Direct Object) atau Objek Langsungnya (Direct Object) satu kesatuan makna yang apabila dipisah malah membuat kesalahpahaman. Contoh:

* The president awarded him a gold medal.
* He told us an interesting story.
* The robber dealt the traveler a heavy blow.
* We promised our guide a handsome reward.
* The teacher wished the boys all success.

Subject + verb + direct object + preposition + indirect object

Pola ini digunakan apabila Objek Langsung lebih pendek dari pada Objek Tak Langsung atau apabila Objek Langsungnya adalah satu kesatuan makna yang perlu mendapatkan penekanan makna. Contoh:

* He distributed sweets to all the boys in the class.
* I don’t lend books to anybody.
* She bought a present for her mother.
* She ordered a new dress for herself.
* He made coffee for all of us.

Subject + verb + object + complements

Beberapa Kata Kerja Transitif diikuti oleh sebuah Objek dan Objek Pelengkap. Contoh:

* The people wanted to crown Caesar king.
* They named the baby Christopher.
* You may call it what you will.
* They chose him their leader.

Contoh diatas menunjukkan bahwa Objek Pelengkapnya adalah Kata Benda. Kata Depan “As” atau “for” kadang-kadang digunakan dengan Kata-kata kerja tertentu. Contoh:

* Whom will they chose for their leader?
* I wonder whom they will elect as President.

Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini.

* The noise drove him mad.
* He painted the car red.
* We found the house empty.
* We consider the matter very important.

Disini Objek Pelengkapnya adalah Adjectives. Kadang-kadang “to be” diletakkan sebelum Pelengkap. Contoh:

* I consider the plan (to be) unwise.
* Most people supposed him (to be) innocent.
* I knew him to be conscientious.
* They have proved themselves (to be) worthy of our trust.

Subject + be + complement

Kata Kerja “be” diikuti oleh Subject Complement. Subject Complement bisa saja terdiri dari Kata Benda, Kata Sifat, Kata Keterangan atau Frase Kata Keterangan. Contoh:

* He is an engineer.
* They are our friends.
* The play was interesting.
* He is in the next room.
* God is everywhere.

Beberapa Kata Kerja Intransitif juga diikuti oleh Subject Complements.

* She remained a spinster.
* The crowd turned violent.
* That sounds funny.
* I felt miserable.
* He went abroad.

Subject + verb + question word + infinitive

Kata Tanya (Question Word) pada Pola di atas digunakan sebagai Objek Langsung.

* I don’t know where to turn for help.
* We must find out what to do next.
* Let us decide when to start.
* Have you been told where to stay?
* I don’t know how to stop it.
* We must remember where to turn off the main road.
* Do you know what to look for?

Catatan: Salah jika Anda menggunakan ‘What to do?’ (Contoh ke-2) sebagai Pertanyaan. Sebagai Penggantinya, Anda harus gunakan ‘What shall we do?’ atau ‘What is to be done?’

The question word + infinitive can be changed into a noun clause.

* I don’t know where to turn for help. (= I don’t know where I should turn for help. )
* We must find out what to do next. (= We must find out what we should do next. )
* Let us decide when to start. (= Let us decide when we should start. )

Subject + verb + indirect object + question word + infinitive

* I will show you how to manage it.
* Could you tell me where to find a good hotel?
* Someone should teach you how to behave.
* A good dictionary tells you how to pronounce words.
* Please direct me how to get there.

Have (or get) + object + past participle

Pola diatas digunakan untuk menyuruh orang lain mengerjakan sesuatu (Perhatikan pelajaran Causative).

* I must have my shoes mended. (OR I must get my shoes mended.)
* We got our house designed by a famous architect.
* She has had her photographs taken.
* She got her son trained as a mechanic.

The… the… with comparative adjectives

Pola di atas artinya “Semakin…, maka semakin…) Lihat Pelajaran Comparasion (Comparative Degree).

* The less I see him the more I like him.
* The more he reads the less he understands.
* The older we grow the wiser we become.
* The richer one grows the greater one’s worries.
* The higher you climb the colder it gets.

Subject + present perfect + adverbials/complements

* They have lived here since 1960.
* They have lived here for twelve years now.
* The boy has grown enormously in the last two years.
* Has the peon gone to the post office already?
* I have been there this morning.

Verb patterns with present perfect progressive tense

* Alice has been knitting a sweater for her brother.
* The anxious father has been waiting for a call from his son in the US.
* The leaning tower of Pisa has been leaning more and more every year.
* The Americans have been spending billions of dollars on space research.

Verb patterns with the past perfect

* The Prime Minister had visited Moscow before she went to London.
* The visitors had left by the time I reached home.
* The patient had died before the doctor arrived.
* The rebels had already been shot before the UN could intervene.

Be + to-infinitive is also used as a mild form of command.

* Teacher says you are to learn the poem by heart.
* The scouts are to wear their uniforms for the parade.
* Father says you are not to go to the pictures tonight.

Subject + verb + object + infinitive

* Newton saw the apple fall to the ground.
* I watched the servant light the fire.
* We heard her sing a lovely song.
* They made the child drink the milk.
* We saw the criminal break open the door.
* Did you notice anyone come in?

Catatan

Setelah Kata Kerja seperti bid, watch, see, let, make dan hear, gunakan Kata kerja tanpa “to”. Contoh:

* They made me wait. (NOT They made me to wait.)
* He bade me come. (NOT He bade me to come.)
* I saw her light the lamp. (NOT I saw her to light…)
* We heard her sing a song. (NOT We heard her to sing…)
* We watched them play.
* Let him go.

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